The active site is a three-dimensional cleft formed by groups that come from different parts of the amino acid sequence
The active site takes up a relatively small part of the total volume of an enzyme
Active sites are clefts or crevices
Substrates are bound to enzymes by multiple weak attractions. These mechanisms will be explained below. Sometimes enzymes also need to bind with some cofactors to fulfil their function. Nerves now constantly transmit signals and cause excessive muscular contraction, leading to asphyxiation and death. But the catalytic site involves hydrophobic interaction for the attachment of the substrate with the enzyme. The presence of charged groups with the active site will attract substrates and ensure electrostatic complementarity.:176–8. Since they do not compete with substrates for the active site, they cannot be overcome by simply increasing the substrate concentration. Apart from competitive inhibition, this theory cannot explain the mechanism of action of non-competitive inhibitors either, as they do not bind to the active site but nevertheless influence catalytic activity.